Human Nervous System
Grade 6 Science Worksheets
The human nervous system is an incredibly complex and fascinating aspect of human biology. It is responsible for controlling and coordinating nearly all of our bodily functions, from basic reflexes to our ability to think, feel, and interact with the world around us. Understanding the structure and function of the nervous system is crucial to comprehending a wide range of biological, psychological, and medical concepts. In this blog, we will delve into the intricacies of the human nervous system, exploring its anatomy, physiology, and various roles in our daily lives.
Human Nervous System - Grade 6 Science Worksheet PDF
This is a free printable / downloadable PDF worksheet with practice problems and answers. You can also work on it online.
Sign up with your email ID to access this free worksheet.
"We really love eTutorWorld!"
"We really love etutorworld!. Anand S and Pooja are excellent math teachers and are quick to respond with requests to tutor on any math topic!" - Kieran Y (via TrustSpot.io)
"My daughter gets distracted easily"
"My daughter gets distracted very easily and Ms. Medini and other teachers were patient with her and redirected her back to the courses.
With the help of Etutorworld, my daughter has been now selected in the Gifted and Talented Program for the school district"
- Nivea Sharma (via TrustSpot.io)
The major organs of the nervous system are: Brain & Spinal Cord. The sensory organs serve as accessory parts of the nervous system and there are 12 Cranial nerves & 31 Spinal Nerves.
The human nervous system is divided into two parts, the central nervous system & the peripheral nervous system.
The Central nervous system consists of the Brain & the Spinal Cord, while the Peripheral nervous system consists of the Cranial Nerves, Spinal Nerves, and Accessory nerves.
The Peripheral Nervous system is divided into the Autonomic Nervous System & the Somatic Nervous System.
The Autonomic Nervous System is divided into the Parasympathetic, Sympathetic, & the enteric system.
The Somatic Nervous System is divided into the Somatosensory system, & the Sensory Nervous system
Central Nervous System:
The central nervous system (CNS) is the nervous system component that includes the brain and spinal cord. The body’s control centre, it is in charge of processing and integrating sensory data, supervising movement and coordination, controlling bodily functions, and generating thought and consciousness.
The cranial cavity contains the brain, which is the highest level of control in the nervous system. The brain is divided into various regions, each of which performs a particular function.
The spinal cord, which runs from the brainstem to the lower back and serves as a pathway for the transmission of sensory and motor signals between the brain and the rest of the body, is located in the vertebral canal.
The CNS is shielded by a network of barriers, including the skull, spinal column, and blood-brain barrier, which helps to maintain a healthy environment for neurons and protects the brain & the spine from harmful substances.
The brain and spinal cord are protected by three layers of membranes known as meninges. The pia mater is the delicate inner layer. The arachnoid is the middle layer, a web-like structure filled with fluid that cushions the brain. The dura mater is the tough outer layer.
Overall, the central nervous system is responsible for many of our conscious and unconscious behaviours and functions, and it is critical to the proper functioning of the body.
White matter, along with grey matter, is one of the two main components of the brain. White matter is made up of nerve fibres (axons) that are encased in a fatty substance known as myelin. This myelin insulation enables the transmission of electrical signals between different regions of the brain and the rest of the body to be quick and efficient.
Many of our thoughts, movements, sensations, and emotions are controlled by the brain, which is a complex and highly organized structure. It is divided into several distinct regions, each of which serves a specific purpose.
The following are some of the most important parts of the brain:
The cerebral cortex is the brain’s outer layer and is responsible for many higher functions such as perception, thinking, and movement. It has four major lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital.
The brainstem is located between the spinal cord and the cerebral cortex and serves as a signal transmission pathway between the two. Many of the body’s automatic functions, such as breathing, heart rate, and digestion, are also controlled by it.
Thalamus: Located in the brain’s centre, the thalamus serves as a relay centre for sensory information, directing incoming signals to the appropriate regions of the cortex for processing.
The hypothalamus is located beneath the thalamus and is in charge of many of the body’s basic functions, such as hunger, thirst, and body temperature.
Basal ganglia: The basal ganglia are a group of nuclei deep within the brain that are involved in movement and coordination regulation.
Cerebellum: Located at the base of the brain, the cerebellum is in charge of movement and coordination, as well as balance and posture.
The hippocampus, which is located in the temporal lobe, is also involved in memory formation and retrieval.
Functions of the Brain:
The brain is the most complex and sophisticated organ in the human body, performing several critical functions such as:
Sensory processing is the process by which the brain receives and interprets sensory signals from the body’s periphery, such as touch, temperature, pain, and other sensations.
Motor control: The brain sends signals to the body’s muscles to control movement, posture, and other motor functions.
Cognition: The brain is in charge of many cognitive functions, such as perception, attention, memory, language, and executive functions like decision-making and problem-solving.
Emotion: The brain is crucial in the regulation of emotions such as joy, sadness, anger, and fear.
Motivation: The brain is in charge of controlling drives and motivations like hunger, thirst, and sexual desire.
Consciousness is controlled by the brain, which is responsible for awareness of one’s thoughts, sensations, and surroundings.
Autonomic regulation: The brain regulates autonomic functions like heart rate, blood pressure, and digestion.
These brain functions are interconnected and collaborate to control and coordinate the various processes in the body. Understanding brain functions is essential for understanding nervous system physiology, and disruptions in brain function can result in serious neurological conditions and disabilities.
The spinal cord is a long, delicate tubular structure that runs from the base of the brain down the centre of the back. It is an important part of the central nervous system and serves as the primary pathway for transmitting signals between the brain and the rest of the body.
The spinal cord is divided into several sections, which include:
Gray matter is the innermost part of the spinal cord and is made up of neuronal cell bodies and dendrites. The grey matter is arranged in butterfly-shaped structures called “grey matter horns”.
White matter is the outer layer of the spinal cord and is composed of long, myelinated axons that transmit signals from one part of the body to the next. The white matter is organized into tracts, which are contiguous groups of axons.
Dorsal root: This is the section of the spinal cord that receives sensory signals from the body’s periphery and transmits them to the brain. The dorsal root is made up of spinal nerve sensory fibres that carry information about sensations like touch, temperature, and pain.
Ventral root: The part of the spinal cord that sends motor signals from the brain to the body’s periphery. The ventral root is made up of spinal nerve motor fibres that control movement and other functions.
Spinal nerve: A spinal nerve connects each segment of the spinal cord and is formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral roots. The spinal nerves carry messages from the spinal cord to the peripheral nervous system.
The subarachnoid space is the space surrounding the spinal cord that is filled with cerebrospinal fluid, which cushions and protects the spinal cord.
The meninges are three layers of protective tissue that surround the spinal cord. The dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater are examples of these.
Each part of the spinal cord is important in transmitting signals and maintaining nervous system function. Understanding the structure and function of the spinal cord is critical for understanding nervous system physiology as well as the causes and treatments of spinal cord injuries and other neurological conditions.
Functions of Spinal Cord:
The spinal cord is an important component of the central nervous system that performs several important functions in the body, including:
Sensory processing occurs when the spinal cord receives sensory signals from the body’s periphery and transmits them to the brain for interpretation. This includes sensory information such as touch, temperature, and pain.
Motor control: The spinal cord receives and transmits motor signals from the brain to the body’s periphery, where they control movements and other functions.
Reflexes: Some basic reflexes can be processed by the spinal cord on its own, independent of the brain. If you touch a hot stove, for example, the spinal cord can immediately respond by causing your hand to withdraw from the heat without waiting for a signal from the Brain
Pain modulation: The spinal cord can modulate pain signals before they reach the brain, allowing for pain perception to be regulated.
Autonomic regulation: The spinal cord regulates autonomic functions like heart rate, blood pressure, and digestion.
Postural control: The spinal cord helps to maintain posture and balance by sending signals to the body’s muscles.
The spinal cord’s functions are critical for the nervous system’s proper functioning, and spinal cord disruptions can result in serious neurological conditions and disabilities. Understanding the functions of the spinal cord is essential for understanding nervous system physiology as well as the causes and treatments of spinal cord injuries and other neurological conditions.
“There have been times when we booked them last minute, but the teachers have been extremely well-prepared and the help desk at etutorworld is very prompt.
Our kid is doing much better with a higher score.”
6th Grade Tutoring
eTutorWorld offers Personalized Online Tutoring for Math, Science, English, and Standardised Tests.
Our Tutoring Packs start at just under $21 per hour, and come with a moneyback guarantee.
Schedule a FREE Trial Session, and experience quality tutoring for yourself. (No credit card required.)
Peripheral Nervous System
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is the part of the nervous system that is not contained by the brain or spinal cord. It includes all of the nerves and ganglia (clusters of nerve cells) that are not part of the central nervous system.
The PNS connects the central nervous system to the rest of the body and sends sensory information to the brain as well as motor signals from the brain to the muscles.
The PNS is split into two parts: the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.
The somatic nervous system transmits sensory information and controls voluntary movements, whereas the autonomic nervous system regulates the body’s internal organs and glands, such as the heart, lungs, and digestive system.
The PNS is essential to the nervous system’s operation because it sends sensory data to the brain, enabling us to experience and react to the environment. PNS disruptions can cause a variety of symptoms, including sensory deficits, muscle weakness, and autonomic dysfunction.
Understanding the functions of the PNS is essential for understanding nervous system physiology as well as the causes and treatments of various neurological conditions.
Divisions of Peripheral Nervous system
The somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system are the two major divisions of the peripheral nervous system (PNS).
The Somatic Nervous System: This division of the PNS is in charge of sending sensory information from the body’s periphery to the central nervous system as well as controlling voluntary movements. It is made up of sensory nerves, which carry information about sensations like touch, temperature, and pain, and motor nerves, which control muscle movement.
The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) regulates the body’s internal organs and glands, such as the heart, lungs, and digestive system. It is divided into two parts: the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system increases heart rate, breathing rate, and metabolism to prepare the body for physical activity, whereas the parasympathetic nervous system slows these processes and promotes relaxation and rest.
These two divisions of the PNS collaborate to regulate body functions and maintain homeostasis, or balance. PNS disruptions can cause a variety of symptoms, including sensory deficits, muscle weakness, and autonomic dysfunction.
Understanding the different divisions of the PNS is essential for understanding nervous system physiology as well as the causes and treatments of various neurological conditions.
Functions of Peripheral Nervous System:
The PNS serves several important functions, including:
Sensory information transmission: The PNS is in charge of transmitting sensory information from the body’s periphery to the central nervous system. This includes sensory information such as touch, temperature, and pain, as well as proprioceptive information about body position and movement.
Controlling voluntary movements: The PNS is involved in the control of voluntary movements such as walking, running, typing, or playing an instrument. This system functions by sending signals from the brain to the muscles, instructing them on when to contract or relax.
Internal organ regulation: The autonomic division of the PNS is in charge of regulating the body’s internal organs and glands, such as the heart, lungs, and digestive system. By controlling the body’s vital functions, this division of the PNS helps to maintain homeostasis, or balance.
Responding to stress: The sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system, specifically the PNS, plays an important role in preparing the body for physical activity by increasing heart rate, breathing rate, and metabolism in response to stress.
In summary, the PNS is critical to nervous system function by transmitting sensory information, controlling voluntary movements, regulating internal organs, and responding to stress.
Glial cells are specialized cells in the brain and spinal cord that support and protect the neurons, which are the cells responsible for transmitting information throughout the nervous system.
There are several types of glial cells, including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia, and each has its own unique role.
For example, astrocytes provide nutrients to neurons, regulate the chemical balance of the brain, and play a crucial role in forming connections between neurons.
Oligodendrocytes produce myelin, a fatty substance that wraps around neurons and helps to speed up the transmission of electrical signals.
Microglia act as the brain’s immune cells, protecting the brain from infections and other types of damage.
In short, glial cells are essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system and play a vital role in keeping the brain and spinal cord healthy and functioning correctly.
The differences between Neurons & Glial cells:
Size & structure: Neurons are specialized cells responsible for signal transmission in the nervous system. They have their own structure, which includes a cell body, dendrites, axons, and synapses. Glial cells, on the other hand, lack these specialized structures and are significantly smaller in size.
Function: Neurons are the primary transmitters of electrical and chemical signals throughout the body. Glial cells, on the other hand, provide neurons with support and protection. They also help to maintain the proper ion balance and remove dead neurons by regulating the chemical environment around the neurons.
Number: Neurons are specialized cells that transmit signals in the nervous system. They have a distinct structure that includes a cell body, dendrites, axons, and synapses. Glial cells, on the other hand, lack these specialized structures and are much smaller in size.
Development: Neurons are primarily responsible for sending electrical and chemical signals across the body. Glial cells, on the other hand, support and protect neurons. They also help to maintain proper ion balance and remove dead neurons by regulating the chemical environment around the neurons.
Structure of neurons:
A typical neuron’s structure is divided into three major parts: dendrites, cell body, and axon.
Dendrites are branching extensions of the cell body that receive signals from neighbouring neurons. Dendrites are covered in tiny spikes known as dendritic spines, which receive incoming signals and transmit them to the cell body.
The cell body (soma) is the central part of the neuron, containing the nucleus and other cellular components. It integrates the signals received by the dendrites and determines whether or not to forward the signal to the axon.
Axon: Axons are long, slender extensions of neurons that carry electrical signals away from the cell body. Axon terminals are branches at the end of the axon that release chemical signals called neurotransmitters that interact with other neurons or muscle cells.
Furthermore, some neurons have a specialized structure known as the axon hillock, which is situated at the base of the axon and is responsible for the creation and transmission of electrical signals.
In summary, the structure of a neuron is optimized for receiving and transmitting signals, allowing for rapid and precise interaction between neurons and other cells in the body.
Functions of a neuron:
The primary function of a neuron is to transmit signals within the nervous system. This is achieved through a complex process involving the following steps:
Reception of signals: The dendrites of a neuron receive signals from other neurons or sensory cells.
Integration of signals: The cell body integrates the signals received by the dendrites and decides whether to pass the signal along to the axon.
Generation of an action potential: If the sum of the signals received by the dendrites is strong enough, the cell body generates an electrical signal called an action potential.
Propagation of the action potential: The action potential is propagated along the axon towards the axon terminals.
Release of neurotransmitters: At the axon terminals, the action potential triggers the release of chemical signals called neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft, which is the gap between the axon terminal and the dendrite of another neuron.
Reception of neurotransmitters: The neurotransmitters are received by receptors on the dendrites of the next neuron, causing changes in the electrical potential of the receiving neuron and leading to the transmission of the signal to the next neuron.
The process by which information is transmitted from one neuron to another across the synaptic cleft, the small gap between one neuron’s axon terminal and the dendrite of another neuron, is known as neurotransmission.
It is an essential component of nervous system function and plays an important role in the regulation of many physiological processes.
When an action potential reaches a neuron’s axon terminal, the process of neurotransmission begins. This causes chemical signals known as neurotransmitters to be released into the synaptic cleft. The neurotransmitters then bind to specific receptors on the dendrites of the next neuron, causing changes in the receiving neuron’s electrical potential and transmitting the signal to the next neuron.
The release of neurotransmitters and their binding to receptors are highly regulated processes that allow for precise control over signal transmission within the nervous system. Different neurotransmitters have different effects on target cells, and the balance of neurotransmitters can have a significant impact on the nervous system’s overall function.
In conclusion, neurotransmission is a critical process that enables rapid and efficient communication between neurons as well as the regulation of many physiological processes.
Types of neurotransmitters:
Neurotransmitters are chemical signalling molecules released by neurons into the synaptic cleft, which is the small gap between one neuron’s axon terminal and the dendrite of another neuron.
They play an important role in signal transmission from one neuron to the next, allowing for rapid and efficient communication within the nervous system.
There are numerous neurotransmitters, each with a distinct function and effect on the target cells. Neurotransmitters include the following:
Acetylcholine (ACh): ACh is involved in muscle contraction, learning and memory, and heart rate and breathing regulation.
Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that regulates mood, motivation, and reward.
Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that regulates mood, appetite, and sleep.
Norepinephrine is a neurotransmitter that regulates alertness, attention, and arousal.
GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid): GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that aids in the regulation of other neurons’ activity, preventing overstimulation and promoting relaxation.
Glutamate is the most widely available neurotransmitter in the human brain and is involved in many functions such as learning, memory, and the regulation of other neurons’ activity.
The creation of an action potential at the axon terminal causes the release of neurotransmitters. The neurotransmitters then bind to particular receptors on the target cells, causing changes in the target cells’ electrical potential and transmitting the signal to the next neuron.
An action potential is a rapid and brief change in a neuron’s electrical potential used to transmit signals along the axon. It is caused by the movement of positively charged ions across the cell membrane, such as sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+).
Do You Stack Up Against the Best?
If you have 30 minutes, try our free diagnostics test and assess your skills.
What exactly is the nervous system?
The nervous system is a complex network of specialized cells that send signals throughout the body. It receives and processes sensory information, generates and controls movement, and regulates various functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and digestion.
What are the primary elements of the nervous system?
The brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves are the main components of the nervous system.
How does the nervous system function?
The nervous system communicates between different parts of the body by sending signals, or nerve impulses. Nerve impulses are electrical signals produced and transmitted by specialized cells known as neurons.
What exactly are neurotransmitters?
Neurotransmitters are chemicals that help neurons communicate with one another. They are essential for signal transmission across the synapse, the tiny gap between two neurons.
What is the distinction between the central and peripheral nervous systems?
The central nervous system (CNS) consists of the brain and spinal cord, whereas the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is made up of all the nerves that lie outside the CNS and transmit signals to and from the CNS.
What are some common nervous system disorders?
Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, migraine, and spinal cord injuries are examples of common nervous system disorders.
What role does the nervous system play in movement control?
The nervous system is critical in controlling movement. Through the spinal cord and peripheral nerves, the brain sends signals to the muscles, which activate the muscles and cause movement.
How does the nervous system control automatic functions like heart rate and respiration?
The nervous system regulates automatic functions such as heart rate and breathing via the autonomic nervous system, which is a specialized group of neurons. This system is in charge of controlling unconscious functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and digestion.
Kathleen Currence is one of the founders of eTutorWorld. Previously a middle school principal in Kansas City School District, she has an MA in Education from the University of Dayton, Ohio. She is a prolific writer, and likes to explain Science topics in student-friendly language. LinkedIn Profile
Affordable Tutoring Now Starts at Just $21
eTutorWorld offers affordable one-on-one live tutoring over the web for Grades K-12. We are also a leading provider of Test Prep help for Standardized Tests (SCAT, CogAT, MAP, SSAT, SAT, ACT, ISEE, and AP).
What makes eTutorWorld stand apart are: flexibility in lesson scheduling, quality of hand-picked tutors, assignment of tutors based on academic counseling and diagnostic tests of each student, and our 100% money-back guarantee.
Whether you have never tried personalized online tutoring before or are looking for better tutors and flexibility at an affordable price point, schedule a FREE TRIAL Session with us today.
*There is no purchase obligation or credit card requirement
Grade 6 Science Worksheets
- Inquiry process
- Nature of Science
- Scientific Inquiry
- Inquiry, Analysis and Problem Solving
- Ethical Practices
- Science and Society
- Biotic and Abiotic Factors
- Impact of Organisms
- Spheres of Earth
- Natural Resources
- Environmental Issues
- Conservation of Earth
- Understanding Technology
- Abilities To Do Technological Design
- Structure of Earth
- Solar System
- Rocks and Fossils
- Earth Systems
- Plate Tectonics
- Magnetic Field of Earth
- Geologic Time
- Materials and Processes That Shape a Planet
- Kinetic and Potential Energy
- Energy Transfer
- Matter and its Structure
- States of Matter
- Physical and Chemical Changes
- Force and Motion
- Electricity and Magnetism
- Wave Interactions
- Introduction to Life Science
- The Origin & History of Life On Earth
- Plant and Animal Cells
- Parts of a Cell
- The Cell Cycle
- How Living Organisms Get Energy
- Classification of Organisms
- How Plants Grow & Reproduce
- The Human Respiratory System
- The Human Cardiovascular System
- The Human Digestive System
- The Human Endocrine Systems
- The Human Nervous System
- The Human Muscular System
- The Human Skeletal System
IN THE NEWS
Our mission is to provide high quality online tutoring services, using state of the art Internet technology, to school students worldwide.
Online test prep and practice
Pre Calculus Tutoring
Sales Partner Opportunities
Our Expert Tutors
Safe and Secure Tutoring
Interactive Online Tutoring
After School Tutoring
Elementary School Tutoring
Middle School Tutoring
High School Tutoring
Home Work Help
Math Tutors New York City