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 Structure of the Earth – Grade 7 Science Worksheets

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How the Earth is made up?

The Earth’s Crust

The crust making up the continents is constituted of granite and basalt rock makes up beneath the oceans. This is the outermost layer of Earth. The crust differs in varied thickness from 30 to 70 km under the continents and 5 to 15 km in the ocean levels. Beneath the mountains like the Rockies, Alps the crust is as thick as 100 km.

Granite

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 Basalt

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What are all the layers of the earth?

Mantle

It is the second layer made of two parts, upper and lower, the thick layer is made of extremely hot, semisolid rock is beneath the crust and is about 2,900 km thick made up of iron and magnesium.

Core

The core is two times thicker when compared to the mantle. The outer core is the only liquid layer, an ocean of mostly iron and nickel alloy. It is about 2,300 km thick. The liquid outer core controls most of the earth’s magnetic field, making the spinning action possible as the Earth rotates. The core is extremely hot and pressure here is very high, that is why the iron and nickel is in liquid form. The inner core is mainly iron in molten form.

Lithosphere

Made up of the crust and a very little of the upper mantle, this layer is divided into several very slowly moving plates of solid rock that hold the continents and oceans.

Asthenosphere

The upper mantle makes the plates of the lithosphere move on this hot, liquid magma right below the lithosphere.

Tectonic plates

The plate tectonics theory, says that the earth’s outer layer, or lithosphere, is broken into several large pieces called plates.
These are tectonic plates, which hold the continents and oceans and are slowly but constantly moving on the Earth’s surface. The movement of the plates proves that the continents are not fixed and had moved over time, and also describes how and why earthquakes, volcanoes, and other events occur in Nature.

Plate Boundaries

A plate boundary is where these tectonic plates meet. These are of different kinds depending on the movement they make.

  • Convergent plate boundary – Crashing towards each other

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Credit: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Convergent_boundary

  • Divergent plate boundary – moving away from each other.

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Credit: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plate_tectonics

Check Point

I.  Explain the following:

  1. What is the Crust made up of?
  2. What makes up the core?
  3. What do you understand by plate boundary?
  4. What is the basic composition of the mantle?
  5. What is the Lithosphere?
Answer Key
Answer Key

  1. The crust is made up of granite on the continents and basalt rock makes up beneath the oceans.
  2. The outer core is iron and nickel and the inner core is mostly iron.
  3. plate boundary is where these tectonic plates meet.
  4. Mantle is basically a composition of iron and magnesium.
  5. Lithosphere is made up of the crust and a very little part of the upper mantle, this layer is divided into many slowly moving plates of solid rock that hold the continents and oceans above.

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