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Abiotic and Biotic Factors (Definition, Differences, Worksheet)

Grade 6 Science Worksheets

Abiotic Factors(eg. water and soil) are the non-living components of an ecosystem. Biotic Factors(eg. plants and animals) are the living components of an ecosystem. Together, biotic and abiotic factors form an ecosystem. The world around us consists of multiple such ecosystems. Read further for definitions, examples, differences, and more.

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What are Biotic Factors?

Any living thing within an ecosystem is considered a biotic factors. Some examples for biotic factors are: algae, all plants, all animals, all birds, and micro-organisms

They are categorized as follows.

Biotic Factors - Categories - Producers, Consumers

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Producers :  

Producers are also known as Autotrophs, In Greek   “Auto” means “self” and

“troph” means food. They are the source for life on earth. These organisms can prepare food on their own by the process of photosynthesis. The first life found

on earth was producers. Primary producers are the green plants also known as

green gold. They are the source of food for other organisms.

Biotic Factors - Producers - Example - Plant


Consumers are also known as “Heterotrophs”. In Greek, “Hetero” means “other” and “troph” means food . These organisms feed on other living organisms for food. These are incapable of producing their own food by photosynthesis hence, feed on plants or animals or both.



Micro Consumers:


Biotic Factors - Micro Consumers - Sub Types Diagram

a) Herbivores: These are the primary consumers that feed only on plants. Example – Cow, rabbit

Biotic Factors - Example - Cow

b) Secondary Consumers: The organisms that feed on primary consumers. Example : wolf

Biotic Factors - Example - Wolf

c) Carnivores: The organisms that feed on secondary consumers. Example – lion.

Biotic Factors - Example - Lion

d) Omnivores: The organisms that feed on both plants & animals.

Example – Human beings.

e) Scavengers: The organisms that feed on dead animals and convert them into organic matter.

Example – vulture, eagle etc.

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2. Macro Consumers :

 Decomposers are also known as saprophytes where “Sapro” means “decay” and “troph” means “food”.

The organisms that feed on dead and decaying organisms and convert the complex organic matter into simpler form which can be easily taken by plants. These include soil bacteria, fungus , worms  flies and other organisms. These organisms metabolize waste products and convert them into rich fertilizers.

Example: Earthworm, fungus, virus etc.

Biotic Factors - Example - Virus
Biotic Factors - Example - Food Cycle

Biotic Factors Examples

  1. Aquatic plants
  2. Fish
  3. Amphibians
  4. Algae
  5. Bacteria
  6. Corals
  7. Sharks
  8. Jellyfish
  9. Soil bacteria
  10. Fungi
  11. Trees
  12. Grass

What are Abiotic Factors

Abiotic Factors are non-living components present in the ecosystem. Some examples are: soil, air, rocks, sand, sunlight, and water. Earth is the only planet that supports life due to the presence of these abiotic factors. These factors are most important as they determine where and how the organism exits in its environment and given as below.

Abiotic Factors - Diagram
  •  Soil :

The upper layer of the earth rich in organic matter, minerals and nutrients. There are different types of soil depending upon the texture and origin they can classified into many types. Each type is different from other in the terms of composition.  Soil is very essential for the growth of the plants as it provides all the required nutrients for their growth.

  • Atmosphere :

This is the layer of the air that surrounds the earth. It creates the condition suitable for the existence of life on earth. The gas that is essential for the existence of life is present in the atmosphere.

  • Sun :

Sun is the source of energy on earth. it is essential for growth of plants. Solar energy is directly taken by the plants for preparing food in the process of photosynthesis. Since animals cannot use solar energy directly they obtain it indirectly by consuming plants.

It has a greater impact on the growth of the plants. The temperature of the earth is also maintained due to the heat produced by the sun and as a result we have different seasons.


Sun is the only source of light on earth. It widely affects the growth of the plants. Many plants grow well when exposed to proper sunlight.

  • Water :

Water is the universal solvent. Many biochemical reactions take place in the aqueous medium. It helps in regulating the body temperature. Rainfall is one of the major source for water.

  • Nutrients :

The movement and exchange of organic and inorganic matter back into the nature is known as nutrient cycle. There are three major nutrient cycles that are essential and responsible for the life on earth which are as follows:

  • Water cycle
  • Nitrogen cycle
  • Oxygen Cycle

Abiotic Factors Examples

  1. Soil
  2. Atmosphere
  3. Sun
  4. Light
  5. Water
  6. Moon
  7. Nutrients
  8. Rock
  9. Sand
  10. Humidity
  11. Temperature
  12. Altitude
  13. Moisture
  14. Water Currents

Check Point

Fill in the blanks:

  1. The layer of air that surrounds the earth is known as __________.
  2. Exchange of organic and inorganic matter back into nature is known as __________.
  3. The only source of light on earth is _____.
  4. The process by which plants prepare their own food is known as __________
  5. Identify the primary consumer among the following.
    1. Tiger
    2. Crocodile
    3. Goat
    4. Cheetha
  6. Which among the following is not the abiotic component?
    1. Soil
    2. Water
    3. Light
    4. Plants
  7. What are the abiotic components required by the producers for preparing their own food?
    1. Sunlight
    2. Water
    3. Soil
    4. Both 1 & 2
  8. Matching:
Column A                    Column B
A.      Land        i.            Omnivores
B.      Virus        ii.            Producer
C.      Human being        iii.            Abiotic component
D.     Sun flower plant        iv.            Saprophytes


Answer Key
  • Atmosphere
  • Nutrient cycle
  • Sun
  • Photosynthesis
  • choice(3)
  • choice(4)
  • choice(4)
  • A-iii,B-iv,c-i, D-ii

Biotic and Abiotic Factors Worksheet with Answer Keys

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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

What are Biotic Factors in simple words?

Biotic factors, in simple words, refer to living things in an ecosystem. These organisms can grow, reproduce, and adapt to their environment. Examples of biotic factors include plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, and humans. Biotic factors interact with each other and with the non-living components of the environment, known as abiotic factors, to form a complex ecosystem.

What are Abiotic Factors in simple words?

Abiotic factors, in simple words, refer to non-living things in an ecosystem. These are physical and chemical components of an environment that affect living organisms, but are not themselves living. Abiotic factors include temperature, water, air, rocks, and minerals.

What are 5 biotic and abiotic factors?

Here are five examples each of biotic and abiotic factors:

  • Biotic Factors: plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, and humans
  • Abiotic Factors: temperature, water, soil, minerals, and light

Biotic factors are living organisms that can influence an ecosystem, while abiotic factors are non-living components that can influence an ecosystem.

Are trees biotic or abiotic?

A tree is a biotic factor.

Biotic factors are living components of the ecosystem. A tree is a biotic factor because it is a living organism.

Trees provide a habitat for other organisms, absorb carbon dioxide and producing oxygen, and play a critical role in nutrient cycle. In addition to trees, other examples of biotic factors include animals, fungi, bacteria, and plants.

Are rocks abiotic or biotic?

Rocks are abiotic.

Abiotic factors are non-living components of the environment.

Rocks can influence ecosystems by affecting soil composition, providing a habitat for organisms, affecting waterflow in a stream, affecting temperature, or by affecting wind patterns.

Is water abiotic?

Water is an abiotic component of the ecosystem.

Abiotic factors are non-living components of the ecosystem. Water is an  abiotic factor because it is not a living organism.

Water provides a habitat for organisms, can change position or temperature of both biotic and abiotic factors. In addition to water, other examples of abiotic factors include soil, rocks, rain, temperature, and sun.

What are 10 Biotic Factors?

Here are 10 biotic factors:

  1. Plants
  2. Animals
  3. Fungi
  4. Bacteria
  5. Protists
  6. Viruses
  7. Humans
  8. Insects
  9. Birds
  10. Fish

What are 10 abiotic things?

Here are 10 abiotic things:

  1. Sunlight
  2. Water
  3. Temperature
  4. Soil
  5. Air
  6. Minerals
  7. Rocks
  8. Oxygen
  9. Carbon dioxide
  10. pH levels of soil and water