What is a Gas?
Grade 6 Science Worksheets
Gases are one of the three common states of matter, along with solids and liquids. They are characterized by their ability to expand to fill their container, lack of fixed shape or volume, and low density compared to solids and liquids.
Table of Contents:
- Physical Properties of Gases
- Chemical Properties of Gases
- Kinesthetic Properties of Gases
- Molecular Force of Attraction in Gases
- Ideal Gas Law
- Exceptions to Gases
- Experiments with Gases
What is a Gas? - Grade 6 Science Worksheet PDF
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Gases are made up of particles (atoms or molecules) that move around rapidly and collide with one another and the walls of their container, creating pressure. Examples of gases include air, helium, and carbon dioxide.
Physical Properties of Gases
The physical properties of gases include:
1. Volume: Gases have no definite shape or volume, and take on the shape and volume of their container. Examples: A balloon filled with helium, a tire filled with air.
2. Pressure: Gases exert pressure on their container due to the collision of gas particles with the walls of the container. Examples: The pressure of the air in a scuba tank, the pressure of the gas in a propane tank.
3. Density: Gases have low density compared to solids and liquids. Examples: Helium is less dense than air, and rises in air, creating buoyancy. Carbon dioxide is denser than air and can collect in low areas, posing a suffocation risk.
4. Compressibility: Gases can be compressed to reduce their volume. Examples: Compressed air in a can, and compressed natural gas (CNG) used as fuel for vehicles.
5. Diffusivity: Gases can mix and diffuse with each other rapidly. Examples: Oxygen and nitrogen mix in the air we breathe, and carbon dioxide diffuses from the lungs into the bloodstream during respiration.
Chemical Properties of Gases
The chemical properties of gases include:
1. Reactivity: Gases can undergo chemical reactions with other gases or with solids or liquids.
Example: Hydrogen gas (H2) can react with oxygen gas (O2) in a combustion reaction to form water vapor (H2O).
2. Flammability: Some gases can undergo combustion reactions, burning in the presence of oxygen.
Example: Methane gas (CH4) is a flammable gas that can burn in the presence of oxygen to produce carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O).
3. Toxicity: Some gases can be toxic to living organisms.
Example: Carbon monoxide (CO) is a toxic gas that can be produced by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, and can be deadly in high concentrations.
4. Acid-base Reactions: Gases can undergo acid-base reactions with other gases or with liquids.
Example: Carbon dioxide gas (CO2) can dissolve in water to form carbonic acid (H2CO3), which can contribute to the acidity of rain.
5. Oxidation: Gases can undergo oxidation reactions, in which oxygen is added to the gas molecule.
Example: Sulfur dioxide gas (SO2) can react with oxygen gas (O2) to form sulfur trioxide (SO3) in a chemical process called oxidation.
Kinesthetic Properties of Gases
The kinetic properties of gases are related to the motion of gas particles. Here are some examples:
1. Velocity: Gas particles are in constant motion and have a range of velocities. The average velocity of gas particles is related to temperature. As temperature increases, gas particles move faster, and the average velocity increases.
2. Energy: Gas particles have kinetic energy due to their motion, and the energy is related to temperature. Higher temperatures mean higher energy of gas particles.
3. Pressure: Gas pressure is caused by the collision of gas particles with the walls of a container. The pressure is related to the number of collisions per unit area, which is related to the number of particles and their velocity.
4. Diffusion: Gas particles diffuse from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. The rate of diffusion is related to the velocity of particles.
5. Effusion: Gas particles escape through a small hole into a vacuum. The rate of effusion is related to the velocity of particles.
Examples of these kinetic properties in gases can be seen in everyday life, such as the smell of perfume diffusing throughout a room, or the sound of a balloon popping due to the pressure of the gas particles inside.
Molecular Force of Attraction in Gases
In gases, the intermolecular forces of attraction are generally very weak due to the large distance between gas particles. The primary force that governs the behavior of gas particles is the kinetic energy of the particles.
1. The attractive forces between gas particles are known as Van der Waals forces, and they include:
2. London dispersion forces: These forces are caused by temporary dipoles that occur when the electrons in a gas particle move to one side, creating a temporary imbalance in the electron distribution. These temporary dipoles can induce dipoles in neighboring gas particles, causing weak attractive forces.
3. Dipole-dipole forces: These forces occur when gas particles have a permanent dipole moment due to an uneven distribution of electrons in the molecule. The positive end of one molecule is attracted to the negative end of another molecule.
4. Hydrogen bonding: This type of dipole-dipole interaction is particularly strong and occurs when hydrogen is bonded to a highly electronegative atom such as nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine.
5. In general, the strength of these intermolecular forces increases as the size and complexity of the gas particles increase. However, these forces are still relatively weak in comparison to the kinetic energy of the particles, which is the primary force governing the behavior of gases.
Ideal Gas Law
The ideal gas law is a fundamental law in physics and chemistry that describes the behavior of an ideal gas. An ideal gas is a hypothetical gas made up of tiny particles that have no volume and do not interact with each other except through elastic collisions. The ideal gas law can be expressed mathematically as:
PV = nRT
where P is the pressure of the gas, V is its volume, n is the number of moles of gas, R is the ideal gas constant, and T is the absolute temperature of the gas.
The ideal gas law is used to predict the behavior of gases under different conditions of pressure, volume, temperature, and amount of gas. It can be used to calculate the pressure, volume, temperature, or amount of gas when any three of these variables are known. For example, if you know the pressure, volume, and temperature of a gas, you can use the ideal gas law to calculate the number of moles of gas present.
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Exceptions to Gases
While most substances can exist in the gas phase under appropriate conditions, there are a few exceptions. Here are some notable examples:
1. Substances that are too reactive: Some substances, such as certain metals or nonmetals, are too reactive to exist in the gas phase under normal conditions. For example, sodium metal reacts violently with water to form hydrogen gas and sodium hydroxide, making it impossible to store as a gas.
2. Substances with high boiling points: Substances with high boiling points, such as metals or some minerals, do not exist in the gas phase under normal conditions because their boiling points are too high to be reached at standard temperature and pressure. For example, iron has a boiling point of over 5,000 degrees Celsius, which is much higher than any practical temperature that can be reached.
3. Substances with low vapor pressure: Substances that have weak intermolecular forces and/or strong intramolecular forces may have low vapor pressure, meaning that they do not easily evaporate into the gas phase. Examples include solids like diamonds and ice, which can sublimate directly into the gas phase under certain conditions but have very low vapor pressure under normal conditions.
4. Substances in extreme conditions: Under extreme conditions, such as high pressures or low temperatures, some substances may not exist in the gas phase. For example, at very low temperatures, helium can become a superfluid, which exhibits properties that are different from those of a gas. At very high pressures, some substances may become solid or undergo chemical changes that prevent them from existing as gas.
Experiments with Gases
There are many experiments that can be performed with gases to investigate their properties and behavior. Here are a few examples:
1. Gas Laws Experiments: These experiments investigate the relationship between pressure, volume, temperature, and the number of gas particles, as described by the ideal gas law and other gas laws. Some examples include Boyle’s law, Charles’s law, and the combined gas law.
2. Diffusion and Effusion Experiments: These experiments investigate the rate of diffusion and effusion of gases. For example, a common experiment involves measuring the rate of effusion of two gases through small holes in a container and comparing the rates to determine the relative masses of the gases.
3. Gas Chromatography: This technique involves separating and analyzing the components of a gas mixture based on their relative affinity for a stationary phase and a mobile phase. Gas chromatography is commonly used in analytical chemistry and can be used to identify and quantify the components of a gas mixture.
4. Gas Solubility Experiments: These experiments investigate the solubility of gases in liquids or solids. For example, Henry’s law describes the relationship between the pressure of a gas above a liquid and the amount of gas that dissolves in the liquid. This relationship can be investigated by measuring the amount of gas that dissolves in a liquid under different pressures.
5. Combustion Experiments: These experiments investigate the reaction of gases with oxygen to produce heat, light, and other products. Combustion reactions can be used to investigate the chemical properties of gases, and can also be used to power engines and other devices.
In summary, the information provided describes various experiments that can be performed with gases to investigate their properties and behavior. Gas laws experiments investigate the relationships between pressure, volume, temperature, and the number of gas particles.
Diffusion and effusion experiments investigate the rate of gas movement through small holes and can be used to determine relative gas masses. Gas chromatography is a technique used to separate and analyze gas mixtures. Gas solubility experiments investigate the solubility of gases in liquids or solids, and combustion experiments investigate the chemical properties of gases and can be used to power engines and devices.
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What is a gas?
A gas is a state of matter that is characterized by its ability to expand and fill any available space, and to take the shape of its container. Gases are composed of individual particles that are in constant random motion and that are separated by relatively large distances.
What are the properties of gases?
Gases have several unique properties, including low density, compressibility, and expansibility. They also have no definite shape or volume, and can be easily compressed and expanded.
What are some examples of gases?
Some common examples of gases include air, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, helium, and hydrogen.
How do gases behave under different conditions?
The behavior of gases is described by gas laws, which describe how gases behave under different conditions of pressure, temperature, and volume. For example, Boyle’s law states that the volume of a gas is inversely proportional to its pressure, while Charles’s law states that the volume of a gas is directly proportional to its temperature.
What are some applications of gases?
Gases have many important applications in industry, medicine, and research. For example, gases are used in welding, as a fuel source, and in refrigeration and air conditioning systems. They are also used in medical applications such as anesthesia and as a breathing gas for patients with respiratory conditions. In research, gases are used to study chemical reactions, as well as to develop new materials and technologies.
How do gases differ from liquids and solids?
Gases are different from liquids and solids in that they have no definite shape or volume, and can be compressed and expanded much more easily than liquids and solids. Liquids have a definite volume but no definite shape, while solids have both a definite shape and volume.
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