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Chemical Properties of Matter

Grade 6 Science Worksheets

Chemical properties of matter refer to the ability of a substance to change its chemical composition or chemical identity when it reacts with other substances. These properties can be observed through chemical reactions, and they can be used to predict how a substance will behave in different situations.

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Examples of chemical properties include:

  • Reactivity: The ability of a substance to participate in chemical reactions.
  • Combustibility: The ability of a substance to burn or support combustion.
  • Oxidation: The ability of a substance to gain or lose electrons.
  • Acidity: The ability of a substance to donate or accept protons.
  • Toxicity: The ability of a substance to cause harm or death to live organisms.

Chemical properties are different from physical properties which are characteristics that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the substance. Understanding chemical properties is important for fields such as chemistry, materials science, and engineering, as well as in everyday life, for example, food preservation, environmental protection, and medicine.

1. Reactivity

Reactivity is a chemical property of matter that refers to the ability of a substance to participate in chemical reactions. It describes how readily a substance will react with other substances to form new compounds.

Some examples of reactivity include:

  • The reactivity of metals, such as sodium and potassium, readily reacts with water to form metal hydroxides and hydrogen gas.
  • The reactivity of acids, such as hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid, readily reacts with bases to form salt and water.
  • The reactivity of gases, such as oxygen and methane, readily reacts with each other to form water and carbon dioxide.

Reactivity can also be influenced by various factors such as temperature, pressure, and the presence of catalysts or inhibitors. Some substances are highly reactive, while others are relatively unreactive. Understanding the reactivity of a substance is important in many fields, such as chemistry, materials science, and engineering, as well as every day.

2. Combustibility 

Combustibility is a chemical property of matter that refers to the ability of a substance to burn or support combustion. It describes how readily a substance will react with oxygen to form new compounds, typically in the form of heat, light and other gases.
Some examples of combustibility include:

  • The combustibility of fuels such as gasoline, propane, and natural gas, which burn readily when exposed to air or oxygen.
  • The combustibility of wood, paper, and other organic materials, which burn readily when exposed to air or oxygen.
  • The combustibility of certain chemicals, such as sodium, which can ignite and burn when exposed to air or water.

Combustibility can also be influenced by various factors such as temperature, pressure, and the presence of other chemicals, like catalysts or inhibitors. Some substances are highly combustible, while others are relatively non-combustible. Understanding the combustibility of a substance is important in many fields such as materials science, fire safety, and engineering, as well as in everyday life, for example, when using flammable liquids or when deciding which materials to use for building construction.

3. Oxidation

Oxidation is a chemical property of matter that refers to the ability of a substance to gain or lose electrons during a chemical reaction. When a substance loses electrons, it is said to be oxidized, and when a substance gains electrons, it is said to be reduced. This process is called oxidation-reduction or redox reaction.

Some examples of oxidation include:

  • The oxidation of metals, such as iron, which can rust when exposed to air and water. This is because iron loses electrons to oxygen, forming iron oxide (rust).
  • The oxidation of organic materials, such as wood, which can burn when exposed to air and heat. This is because wood loses electrons to oxygen, forming carbon dioxide and water.

On the other hand, an example of reduction is:

  • The reduction of metal oxides, such as iron oxide, which can be reduced to iron by exposure to a reducing agent such as carbon monoxide.

Understanding oxidation and reduction reactions are important in many fields such as chemistry, materials science, and engineering, as well as in everyday life, for example, in the treatment of wastewater and air pollution, and in the production of metals and other materials.

4. Acidity

Acidity is a chemical property of matter that refers to the ability of a substance to donate or accept protons (hydrogen ions, H+) during a chemical reaction. Substances that can donate protons are known as acids, and substances that can accept protons are known as bases. This process is known as an acid-base reaction.

Acids are characterized by their pH values, which range from 0 to 14. Substances with a pH less than 7 are considered acidic, and those with a pH greater than 7 are considered basic (or alkaline).

 Some examples of acids include:

  • Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is a strong acid and has a pH of less than 1
  • Citric acid which is found in lemons and limes, has a pH of 2-3

Some examples of bases include:

  • Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is a strong base and has a pH of 14
  • Ammonia (NH3) has a pH of 11-12.

Understanding acid-base reactions is important in many fields such as chemistry, biology, materials science, and engineering, as well as in everyday life, for example, in the food and beverage industry, in the treatment of wastewater and air pollution, and in the production of fertilizers and cleaning agents.

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5. Toxicity

Toxicity is a chemical property of matter that refers to the ability of a substance to cause harm or death to living organisms. Toxicity can occur through various routes of exposure such as ingestion, inhalation, or skin contact. The degree of toxicity can vary depending on the substance and the route of exposure.

Some examples of toxic substances include:

  • Heavy metals such as lead, mercury, and cadmium can cause damage to the nervous system, kidneys, and other organs if ingested or inhaled in high amounts.
  • Pesticides and herbicides, such as glyphosate and organophosphates, can cause damage to the nervous system and other organs if ingested or inhaled in high amounts.
  • Carbon monoxide, a colorless, odorless gas produced by combustion, can cause headaches, dizziness, weakness, nausea, and even death if inhaled in high concentrations.

Toxicity can also vary depending on the dose, duration of exposure and the susceptibility of the organism. Understanding toxicity and the risks associated with exposure to toxic substances is important in many fields such as chemistry, biology, public health, and environmental science, as well as in everyday life, for example, when handling chemicals, cleaning products, and food.

 

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Chemical Properties of Matter FAQS

What are the chemical properties of matter?

Chemical properties of matter refer to the ability of a substance to change its chemical composition or chemical identity when it reacts with other substances. These properties can be observed through chemical reactions, and they can be used to predict how a substance will behave in different situations.

How are chemical properties different from physical properties?

Chemical properties describe how a substance will react with other substances to form new compounds, while physical properties are characteristics that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the substance.

What are some examples of chemical properties?

Examples of chemical properties include reactivity, combustibility, oxidation, acidity, and toxicity.

What is the difference between an acid and a base?

Acids are substances that can donate protons and have a pH less than 7, bases are substances that can accept protons and have a pH greater than 7.

How can we measure chemical properties?

Chemical properties can be measured through various methods such as chemical reactions, pH measurements, and spectroscopy.

How does toxicity vary?

Toxicity can vary depending on the substance and the route of exposure, as well as the dose, duration of exposure, and the susceptibility of the organism.

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