Body Systems

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A complex organism has several body systems that work simultaneously for it to be able to survive and reproduce. Body systems are groups of organs that work together to perform important ‘chores’ in the body. Some organs may be exclusive to one body system and some may be part of two or more body systems. The body systems in unicellular and lower organisms are simple and they become complex as we go up the hierarchy.

We will be going over the body systems in human beings. The following is the list of main body systems in us –   

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1. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM –

The respiratory system mainly comprises of the nasal cavity, the trachea, and the lungs. The function of the respiratory system is to help in a gaseous exchange between the environment and the cells in the body. It takes oxygen from the environment, which reaches the lungs and diffuses into the blood. The circulatory system carries oxygen to the cells and carries carbon dioxide back to the lungs from where it is exhaled out.

2.DIGESTIVE SYSTEM –

The digestive system comprises of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, and small and large intestines. It ingests food and breaks it down into usable forms. For example, carbohydrates are broken down into glucose, proteins into amino acids, and fats into fatty acids. These nutrients are distributed in the body with the help of the circulatory system. Glucose gives us energy; amino acids build our structure and help in our growth, and fatty acids are an important constituent of our cells. Vitamins and minerals help us stay fit and fight diseases. The digestive system also helps in eliminating solid waste from our body in the form of fecal matter.

3.CIRCULATORY SYSTEM –

The circulatory system includes the heart, the blood, and the blood vessels. It is responsible for the transport of nutrients, gases and waste products in the body. It is like an expressway and sends blood through the body at high speeds. The heart helps in doing so by pumping the blood. The oxygen-rich blood is pushed towards the cells and the carbon dioxide-rich blood from the cells is pushed towards the lungs from where it is thrown out of the body using the respiratory system. Besides nutrients and gases, the circulatory system also carries chemical messengers known as hormones from the endocrine system and prepares the body for various responses!

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4.URINARY SYSTEM –

The urinary system mainly comprises of a pair of kidneys and a bladder. This system helps in expelling the waste products in blood. As blood passes through the kidneys, the waste products are filtered and useful products are retained. The waste products along with excess water from urine and are passed into the bladder from where it is removed via the urethra. The Urinary system thus keeps us healthy by removing toxins and maintaining the electrolyte balance.

5. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM –

How do you know that you are hungry? When your body requires food, the stomach sends a signal by releasing a chemical that tells your brain that you are hungry and you ask your Mom for food! Such and many other signals in the body are triggered by organs known as glands of the endocrine system that secrete chemicals called hormones. The endocrine system also prepares the body against any threat or external hazard in a response known as Fight or Flight. It prepares the body for reproduction by triggering the secretion of hormones like testosterone and estrogen.

6. NERVOUS SYSTEM –

The nervous system includes our brain, spinal cord, and nerves. It enables us to perceive stimuli around us like light, sound, smell, and touch and respond to them accordingly after analyzing them. It allows rapid communication within our body as well. The brain allows us to make decisions, learn and remember things, expresses our emotions like happiness and sorrow, and conducts our behavior. It shapes our personality. The nervous system along with the muscular system brings about the movements in our body.

7. SKELETAL SYSTEM AND MUSCULAR SYSTEM –

These systems give our body its structure and allow movement. The skeletal system comprises of bones, joints, and cartilages. The skeletal system along with the muscular system forms a protective layer over our vital organs. The muscles contract and relax to bring about various kinds of movements in our bodies, both inside and outside of it. The beating of the heart, movement in the digestive tract, expansion of the chest cavity during respiration, writing, walking, running, chewing are just a few of them.

8. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM –

The reproductive system helps in the survival and continuity of a species by producing offsprings. It mainly comprises of ovaries, uterus, testes, and penis. In humans, the functions are clearly distributed wherein the male provides a reproductive cell known as sperm and the female provides ovum. The resulting embryo grows and gets nourishment inside the uterus of a female body.

Besides the above systems, our body has a strong immune system that functions along with the lymphatic system to fight pathogens like bacteria, viruses and other microbes. Special cells called white blood cells and proteins like antibodies fight them before they spread in our body to cause infections. The skin also acts like the first line of defense against pathogens and regulates our body temperature by sweating and forming goosebumps.

You must remember that all these systems work together to make our body work. They are all interconnected and cannot function perfectly without the support of one another.

Check Point

  1. The antibodies are a part of our ________ system that helps us fight infections.
  2. Oxygen, glucose and hormones are carried to various parts of the body via ________ system.
  3. When we touch a hot object, we remove our hand immediately. This reaction is a part of the __________ system and is known as a reflex action.
  4. The uterus and ovaries are parts of the female _________ system.
  5. The skeletal system comprises of ______, _____ and ______.

Answer Key

  1. Immune
  2. Circulatory
  3. Nervous
  4. Reproductive
  5. Bones, joints and cartilages

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