**Order of Operations**

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The order of operations is the set of rules that defines the order in which calculations must be carried out in a mathematical expression. The order of operations is important because it determines how calculations are performed, which can affect the result.

The standard order of operations is as follows:

- Perform any calculations inside parentheses or brackets first.
- Perform any calculations involving exponents or radicals.
- Perform any multiplications and divisions, working from left to right.
- Perform any additions and subtractions, working from left to right.

Using parentheses to specify the order in which calculations should be performed is a good idea, especially when working with more complex expressions.

The acronym PEMDAS, which stands for Parentheses, Exponents, Multiplication and Division, Addition and Subtraction, is often used to help remember the order of operations. The acronym PEMDAS is also used and is the same as PEMDAS, just with the M and D switched. It is essential to use the correct order of operations when evaluating mathematical expressions to ensure that the correct result is obtained.

**Parentheses**

In the order of operations, calculations inside parentheses or brackets are performed first. This is because parentheses and brackets are used to group calculations that should be done before any other functions in the expression.

For example, consider the following expression:

Without any parentheses, it is not clear what should be calculated first. Should the multiplication be done before the addition or the other way around? To specify the order in which the calculations should be performed, we can use parentheses:

In this case, the expression inside the parentheses, 4 + 3, is calculated first, giving a result of 7. Then the multiplication is performed, showing a final result of 35 – 2, or 33.

Using parentheses correctly in an expression is essential to ensure that the intended order of operations is followed and the correct result is obtained.

Another example to show that groupings inside should be solved first.

**Step 1:** In this case, the expression inside the parentheses (32 ÷ 4) should be calculated first. So it will be 8.

**Step 2:** Now the expression inside the square parentheses [8 + 3] should be solved. So, it will be 11.

**Step 3: **Then the multiplication is performed, showing a final result of 11 × 2 = 22.

**Exponents**

In the order of operations, calculations involving exponents, also known as powers or indices, are performed before any multiplications or divisions. This is because exponents indicate the number of times a number should be multiplied by itself, and these calculations should be done before any other operations (except parentheses) in the expression.

An exponent is a small number written above and to the right of another number, called the base. The exponent tells you how many times to multiply the base by itself. For example, the base 4 and exponent 3 can be written like this: 4^3. This means to multiply 4 by itself 3 times, or 4*4*4. The result is 64.

For example, consider the following expression:

2 + 3 * 4^2

In this case, the exponent, 4^2, indicates that 4 should be multiplied by itself 2 times, or 4*4, which gives a result of 16. The exponent calculation is done before the multiplication, so the outcome of the expression is 2 + 3 * 16, or 2 + 48, or 50.

**Multiplication and Division**

In the order of operations, multiplication and division are performed before addition and subtraction. This is because multiplications and divisions are considered equal priorities and should be performed before any additions or subtractions.

For example, consider the following expression:

2 + 4 * 3 – 6 / 2

In this case, the multiplication and division should be performed before the additions and subtractions. First, the multiplication is done: 4 * 3 = 12. Then the division is done: 6 / 2 = 3. Finally, the additions and subtractions are made: 2 + 12 – 3 = 11.

Here is another example:

5 – 4 / 2 + 8 * 3

In this case, the division and multiplication should be done first: 4 / 2 = 2 and 8 * 3 = 24. Then the additions and subtractions are done: 5 – 2 + 24 = 27.

**Addition and Subtraction**

In the order of operations, additions and subtractions are the final calculations that should be performed. This is because they are considered equal priority and should be performed after all other calculations have been completed.

For example, consider the following expression:

2 + 4 * 3 – 6 / 2

In this case, multiplication and division should be performed before the additions and subtractions. First, the expansion is done: 4 * 3 = 12. Then the division is done: 6 / 2 = 3. Finally, the additions and subtractions are made: 2 + 12 – 3 = 11.

Here is another example:

5 – 4 / 2 + 8 * 3

In this case, the division and multiplication should be done first: 4 / 2 = 2 and 8 * 3 = 24. Then the additions and subtractions are done: 5 – 2 + 24 = 27.

**Example 1: **

**Solve: 2 + 6 × (4 + 5) ÷ 3 **–** 5 using PEMDAS.**

**Solution:**

Step 1 – Parentheses : 2+6 × **(4 + 5)** ÷ 3 – 5 = 2 + 6 × 9 ÷ 3 – 5

Step 2 – Multiplication: 2 + **6 × 9** ÷ 3 – 5 = 2 + 54 ÷ 3 – 5

Step 3 – Division: 2 + **54 ÷ 3** – 5 = 2 + 18 – 5

Step 4 – Addition: **2 + 18** – 5 = 20 – 5

Step 5 – Subtraction: 20 –** 5** = 15

### Practice Questions:

- Solve 100 ÷ (6 + 7 × 2)
**–**5 using PEMDAS. - Solve 600 ÷ (44 + 14 × 4)
**–**5 using PEMDAS.

## FAQs

##### 1. What does PEMDAS stand for?

PEMDAS stands for Parentheses, Exponents, Multiplication, and Division, and Addition and Subtraction. This acronym is used to help remember the order of operations in mathematics.

##### 2. What is the order of operations in PEMDAS?

The order of operations in PEMDAS is as follows: Parentheses first, then Exponents, then Multiplication and Division (performed left to right), and finally Addition and Subtraction (performed left to right).

##### 3. Why is the order of operations important?

The order of operations is important because it determines the order in which calculations are performed, which can affect the result. It is essential to use the correct order of operations to ensure that the correct result is obtained.

##### 4. What is the meaning of the acronym PEMDAS?

The acronym PEMDAS stands for Parentheses, Exponents, Multiplication and Division, and Addition and Subtraction. These terms represent the order in which calculations should be performed in a mathematical expression.

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