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Projectile Motion

Grade 9 Science Worksheets

Projectile motion is the motion of an object that is thrown, launched, or dropped and then moves under the influence of gravity alone. In this type of motion, an object moves along a curved path known as a projectile path.

Table of Contents:

  • What is Projectile Motion?
  • Parabolic Motion of Projectile motion
  • Total time of flight of a projectile
  • Horizontal Range
  • Maximum Height of Projectile
  • Factors Affecting Projectile Motion
  • How to calculate Projectile Motion?
  • FAQs
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Projectile Motion - Grade 9 Science Worksheet PDF

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What is Projectile Motion?

Projectile motion is the motion of an object that is thrown, launched, or dropped and then moves under the influence of gravity alone.

In this type of motion, an object moves along a curved path known as a projectile path. Here are ten examples of projectile motion:

  • A basketball being thrown towards the hoop
  • A bullet fired from a gun
  • A baseball being hit by a bat
  • A rocket being launched into space
  • A tennis ball being served
  • An arrow is shot from a bow
  • A javelin being thrown in a track and field event
  • A stone being thrown into a pond
  • A paper airplane being thrown across a room
  • A water balloon being thrown at a target

Parabolic Motion of Projectile Motion

The parabolic motion of projectiles refers to the curved path that a projectile follows when it is launched into the air and moves under the influence of gravity alone. The shape of the path is a parabola, which is a symmetrical U-shaped curve.

The parabolic path of a projectile is the result of the vertical and horizontal components of its motion. When a projectile is launched, it moves upward and forward with some initial velocity. 

The result of this motion is a parabolic path, where the projectile reaches its highest point (known as the maximum height) at the apex of the parabola before falling back down to the ground. The horizontal distance that the projectile travels depends on its initial velocity and the angle at which it was launched.

Examples of projectiles that follow parabolic motion include cannonballs, basketballs, baseballs, and rockets launched into space. Understanding parabolic motion is essential for predicting the trajectory of projectiles and aiming accurately in sports or other applications.

Total time of flight of a Projectile

The total time of flight of a parabolic projectile is the time it takes for the object to travel from its initial launch point to the point where it lands back on the ground.

It is the sum of the time it takes for the object to reach its maximum height and the time it takes for it to return to the ground.

The formula for the total time of flight of a projectile is:

where v0 is the initial velocity of the projectile, theta is the angle of launch, and g is the acceleration due to gravity.

Examples of parabolic projectiles and their total time of flight include:

A cannonball launched at an angle of 30 degrees with an initial velocity of 100 m/s. The total time of flight would be approximately 20.41 seconds.

A basketball is thrown at an angle of 45 degrees with an initial velocity of 10 m/s. The total time of flight would be approximately 1.44 seconds.

A javelin is thrown at an angle of 35 degrees with an initial velocity of 25 m/s. The total time of flight would be approximately 4.06 seconds.

A rocket launched into space at an angle of 90 degrees with an initial velocity of 7.9 km/s. The total time of flight would depend on the altitude and speed of the rocket, but it could be several minutes or even hours.

Understanding the total time of flight of a projectile is important in many applications, such as in sports, military operations, and space travel. It can help determine the optimal launch angle and initial velocity of a projectile, as well as predict its trajectory and impact point.

 

Horizontal Range

The horizontal range of a projectile motion is the distance traveled by the projectile in the horizontal direction before it hits the ground. The range is influenced by the initial velocity of the projectile, the angle of launch, and the acceleration due to gravity.

The formula for the horizontal range of a projectile is:

where R is the horizontal range, v0 is the initial velocity, theta is the launch angle, and g is the acceleration due to gravity.

Here are some examples of projectile motion and their horizontal range:

A ball is thrown horizontally from a height of 2 meters with an initial velocity of 10 m/s. The range of the ball is approximately 20.2 meters.

A projectile is launched at an angle of 45 degrees with an initial velocity of 25 m/s. The range of the projectile is approximately 51.0 meters.

A cannonball is fired at an angle of 30 degrees with an initial velocity of 50 m/s. The range of the cannonball is approximately 1,300 meters.

A bullet is fired from a rifle at an angle of 5 degrees with an initial velocity of 500 m/s. The range of the bullet is approximately 4,655 meters.

Understanding the horizontal range of projectile motion is important in many applications, such as ballistics, sports, and engineering. It can help determine the trajectory and impact point of a projectile, as well as the optimal launch angle and initial velocity for a given range.

Maximum Height of Projectile

The maximum height of a projectile is the highest point that the projectile reaches during its trajectory. It is influenced by the initial velocity of the projectile and the launch angle.

The formula for the maximum height of a projectile is:

where h_max is the maximum height, v0 is the initial velocity, theta is the launch angle, and g is the acceleration due to gravity.

Here are some examples of projectiles and their maximum height:

A ball is thrown vertically upward with an initial velocity of 20 m/s. The maximum height of the ball is approximately 20.2 meters.

A projectile is launched at an angle of 60 degrees with an initial velocity of 10 m/s. The maximum height of the projectile is approximately 2.5 meters.

A cannonball is fired at an angle of 45 degrees with an initial velocity of 50 m/s. The maximum height of the cannonball is approximately 625 meters.

A rocket is launched at an angle of 75 degrees with an initial velocity of 2,000 m/s. The maximum height of the rocket depends on the altitude it is intended to reach.

Understanding the maximum height of a projectile is important in many applications, such as in ballistics, sports, and engineering. It can help determine the trajectory and impact point of a projectile, as well as the optimal launch angle and initial velocity for a given maximum height.

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Factors Affecting Projectile Motion

1. Initial Velocity: The initial velocity of the object determines the speed and direction in which it is launched. The object will continue to move with the same horizontal velocity throughout its trajectory, but the vertical velocity will be influenced by gravity.

2. Angle of Launch: The angle at which the object is launched determines the direction of its initial velocity vector. The optimal angle for maximum range is 45 degrees, but the angle may vary depending on the situation.

3. Air Resistance: Air resistance will cause the projectile to slow down as it moves through the air. This will affect the shape of the trajectory, reducing both the maximum height and range of the projectile.

4. Gravity: Gravity is the force that causes the projectile to move in a curved path. The gravitational force acts on the object throughout its entire trajectory, causing it to accelerate downward.

5. Mass of the Projectile: The mass of the object will affect the magnitude of the gravitational force acting on it. A heavier object will experience a greater gravitational force than a lighter object, causing it to accelerate more quickly.

6. Altitude and Atmospheric Conditions: Altitude and atmospheric conditions, such as air pressure and temperature, can affect the density and resistance of the air, which can, in turn, affect the trajectory of the projectile.

7. Surface and Surroundings: The surface on which the projectile lands, as well as any obstacles in its path, can affect the final outcome of the projectile motion. For example, a projectile may bounce or deflect off a surface or object, altering its trajectory.

 

How to calculate Projectile Motion?

To calculate projectile motion, you can use the following steps:

Determine the initial velocity (v0) of the projectile. This is the speed and direction at which the object is launched.

Break the initial velocity into its horizontal and vertical components. The horizontal component of the initial velocity is the same as the velocity of the object during its entire motion, while the vertical component will change due to the influence of gravity.

Calculate the time of flight (t) of the projectile. This is the time it takes for the projectile to travel from its initial point to its final point. You can use the equation t = 2 * v0sin(theta) / g, where theta is the angle of launch and g is the acceleration due to gravity (9.8 m/s^2).

Calculate the maximum height (h) of the projectile. You can use the equation h = v0^2sin^2(theta) / 2g.

Calculate the range (R) of the projectile. This is the horizontal distance the projectile travels before hitting the ground. You can use the equation R = v0^2sin(2theta) / g.

Use the information you have gathered to plot the projectile’s path. You can use a graph or other visualization tool to show the trajectory of the projectile.

Keep in mind that these calculations assume a perfectly symmetrical parabolic trajectory and do not take into account factors such as air resistance, wind, or the curvature of the Earth’s surface. Therefore, these calculations may not be entirely accurate in real-world scenarios.

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Projectile Motion FAQS

What is projectile motion?

Projectile motion is the motion of an object that is thrown, launched or projected into the air and then moves under the influence of gravity alone.

What are the factors that affect projectile motion?

The factors that affect projectile motion are the initial velocity, launch angle, and acceleration due to gravity.

What is the equation for projectile motion?

The equations for projectile motion are the vertical and horizontal components of displacement, velocity, and acceleration. These equations can be combined to give the trajectory of the projectile.

What is the maximum height of a projectile?

The maximum height of a projectile is the highest point that the projectile reaches during its trajectory. It is influenced by the initial velocity of the projectile and the launch angle.

What is the horizontal range of a projectile?

The horizontal range of a projectile is the distance traveled by the projectile in the horizontal direction before it hits the ground. It is influenced by the initial velocity of the projectile, the launch angle, and the acceleration due to gravity.

What is the total time of flight of a projectile?

The total time of flight of a projectile is the time it takes for the projectile to complete its trajectory and hit the ground. It is influenced by the initial velocity of the projectile, the launch angle, and the acceleration due to gravity.

What are some examples of projectile motion?

Examples of projectile motion include a ball thrown into the air, a basketball shot, a cannonball fired from a cannon, and a rocket launched into space.

Kathleen Currence is one of the founders of eTutorWorld. Previously a middle school principal in Kansas City School District, she has an MA in Education from the University of Dayton, Ohio. She is a prolific writer, and likes to explain Science topics in student-friendly language. LinkedIn Profile

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