# Linear Momentum

#### Grade 9 Science Worksheets

**Linear Momentum, also known as translational momentum, is a measure of an object’s motion in a straight line. It is a vector quantity that takes into account both the object’s mass and velocity.**

Table of Contents:

- What is Linear Momentum?
- Linear Momentum & Linear Motion
- How to calculate Linear Momentum?
- Factors Affecting Linear Momentum
- FAQs

## Linear Momentum - Grade 9 Science Worksheet PDF

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## What is Linear Momentum?

Linear Momentum, also known as translational momentum, is a measure of an object’s motion in a straight line. It is a vector quantity that takes into account both the object’s mass and velocity.

The formula for linear momentum is:

**p = m * v**

where p is momentum, m is mass, and v is velocity. The units of momentum are kilogram meters per second (kg m/s).

Here are some examples of linear momentum in everyday life:

A car traveling down the highway has linear momentum due to its mass and velocity. The faster the car is traveling and the heavier it is, the greater its momentum.

A basketball player running down the court has linear momentum due to their mass and velocity. The faster the player is running and the more they weigh, the greater their momentum.

A train traveling down the tracks has linear momentum due to its mass and velocity. The faster the train is moving and the more cars it has, the greater its momentum.

A skateboarder riding down a ramp has linear momentum due to their mass and velocity. The faster the skateboarder is moving and the more they weigh, the greater their momentum.

A hammer being swung by a construction worker has linear momentum due to its mass and velocity. The faster the hammer is swung and the heavier it is, the greater its momentum.

In each of these examples, the object’s momentum is determined by both its mass and velocity. A heavier object or an object moving at a higher velocity will have greater momentum than a lighter object or an object moving at a slower velocity.

## Difference Between Linear momentum & Linear motion

Linear momentum and linear motion are related concepts in physics, but they have different meanings.

Linear momentum, also known as “momentum” for short, is a measure of how much motion an object has. It is defined as the product of an object’s mass and its velocity. Mathematically, momentum = mass x velocity. Momentum is a vector quantity, which means it has both magnitudes (how much) and direction (which way).

Linear motion, on the other hand, refers to the motion of an object in a straight line, without any rotation or curvature. Linear motion is a type of motion that is described by displacement, velocity, and acceleration in a single dimension.

Here are some examples to illustrate the difference between linear momentum and linear motion:

If you throw a baseball, it has linear momentum because it has mass and velocity. As it travels through the air, it also exhibits linear motion because it moves in a straight line.

A car driving in a straight line also exhibits both linear momentum and linear motion. The car’s momentum is determined by its mass and velocity, and its linear motion is described by its displacement, velocity, and acceleration in a straight line.

If a stationary object is hit by a moving object, the stationary object gains momentum as it begins to move, but its motion may not be strictly linear if it is deflected or bounces in a different direction.

In summary, linear momentum is a measure of how much motion an object has, while linear motion is the motion of an object in a straight line. They are related, but distinct concepts in physics.

## How to Calculate Linear Momentum?

The formula to calculate linear momentum is:

**p = m * v**

where p is the momentum of the object, m is its mass, and v is its velocity.

To calculate linear momentum, you need to know the mass and velocity of the object. Mass is typically measured in kilograms (kg), while velocity is measured in meters per second (m/s).

Here’s an example of how to calculate linear momentum:

Suppose a baseball with a mass of 0.145 kg is thrown at a velocity of 35 m/s. To find the momentum of the baseball, you would use the formula:

p = m * v

p = 0.145 kg * 35 m/s

p = 5.075 kg m/s

Therefore, the momentum of the baseball is 5.075 kg m/s. This means that the baseball has a certain amount of “motion” in a straight line, determined by both its mass and velocity. The greater the mass and velocity of the baseball, the greater its momentum.

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## Factors Affecting Linear Momentum

Linear momentum is affected by two factors: mass and velocity.

**Mass:** The momentum of an object is directly proportional to its mass. This means that the greater the mass of an object, the greater its momentum. For example, a car has a much greater momentum than a bicycle because it has a much greater mass.

**Velocity:** The momentum of an object is also directly proportional to its velocity. This means that the greater the velocity of an object, the greater its momentum. For example, a train traveling at 100 km/h has greater momentum than a train traveling at 50 km/h, even if they have the same mass.

Both mass and velocity have an equal effect on momentum. This means that a small object traveling at a very high velocity can have the same momentum as a much larger object traveling at a slower velocity.

External forces such as friction or air resistance can also affect an object’s momentum by exerting a force on the object in the opposite direction of its motion. This force can cause a decrease in the object’s momentum over time.

For example, a car traveling down a hill will experience an increase in momentum due to gravity, but its momentum will decrease as it goes up the other side of the hill due to the force of friction between the car’s wheels and the road and also due to gravity.

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## Linear Momentum FAQS

##### What is linear momentum?

Linear momentum is a measure of an object’s motion in a straight line. It takes into account both the object’s mass and velocity and is a vector quantity, meaning it has both magnitude and direction.

##### How is linear momentum calculated?

Linear momentum is calculated using the formula p = m * v, where p is the momentum, m is the mass of the object, and v is its velocity.

##### What is the unit of linear momentum?

The unit of linear momentum is kilogram meters per second (kg m/s).

##### What are the factors that affect linear momentum?

Linear momentum is affected by both mass and velocity. The momentum of an object is directly proportional to its mass and velocity. The greater the mass or velocity of an object, the greater its momentum.

##### How does an external force affect the momentum of an object?

External forces such as friction or air resistance can affect the momentum of an object by exerting a force on the object in the opposite direction of its motion. This force can cause a decrease in the object’s momentum over time.

##### What is the law of conservation of momentum?

The law of conservation of momentum states that in a closed system, the total momentum before a collision is equal to the total momentum after the collision. This means that the momentum of a system is conserved, and any changes in momentum must be balanced by an equal and opposite change in momentum elsewhere in the system.

##### What are some real-world examples of linear momentum?

Examples of linear momentum in everyday life include a car traveling down the highway, a basketball player running down the court, and a hammer being swung by a construction worker. In each case, the momentum of the object is determined by both its mass and velocity.

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