The periodic table is an organized arrangement of the chemical elements, in order of their atomic number (number of protons), electron configurations, and their chemical properties. This ordering segregates elements according to their periodic trends that are elements with similar behavior in the same column.
All elements are shown by a square on the Periodic Table of Elements and each of them is marked by its own series of letters. Carbon is C, Calcium is Ca, and Hydrogen is H.
The elements are given in increasing order of the atomic number. And every square has the elements’ atomic number and atomic mass.
The atomic number means the number of protons in the nucleus or the electrons orbiting the nucleus. That is number of protons= number of electrons orbiting the nucleus of an atom = atomic number.
The atomic mass is the average mass of the protons, electrons and neutrons in a single atom.
An atom of carbon with protons and neutrons (nucleus) in the centre and electrons orbiting.
Parts of the Table
For example, Group 18 has the noble gases – Helium, Neon, Argon, Radon, Krypton and Xenon which have low melting and boiling points, and they each are colorless, odorless, tasteless, and nonflammable. The group is called as low chemical reactive group.
Periods are the horizontal rows on the periodic chart. Every element in a period has the same number of electron orbits. 7 is the maximum no. of orbits which an element has according to the discovered elements by the scientists.
The periodic chart has 7 periods. Elements like Hydrogen and Helium are in Period 1- which means they have one orbit of the electron. Elements such as Sodium and Magnesium, Aluminum, are in Period 3- meaning they have three electron orbits.
Other Useful Aspects
A color scheme has been added to the periodic chart to help understand which elements belong to named categories. Charts vary, but most link elements in these categories Alkali metals, Alkaline earth metals, Transitional, Metals, Metalloids, Halogens Other nonmetals, and Noble Gases.
Some interesting glance at the periodic table:
- It is called the periodic table because the rows are called periods.
- There are a total of 118 elements in the periodic table. 90 elements are found in nature, and others are man-made.
- The International Union of Pure Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is takes care of the periodic table.
- The only metal which is so soft that it can be to cut with a knife and light enough to float on water is Lithium.
- The lightest element is Hydrogen its atomic weight is 1 and that is why it is found in the top left corner of the periodic table.
- The atomic weight of Uranium is 238 being the heaviest element.
- The Noble Gases Helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon are unreactive.
- The first man-made element is Technetium. Its basic uses are to locate bone cancers in x-rays.
- 75% of the elements on the periodic table are metals.
- Periodic table of Mendeleev is in the ascending as order of atomic weight and the modern periodic table is according to increasing atomic number.
- Mercury and bromine are only two elements that are liquid in room temperature.
- Dmitry Mendeleev was supposedly late in submitting his work on 63 elements. So in order to finish it quickly he constructed a table of all the elements according to their atomic weights to understand the elements better and to complete his work easily. He was the one who made periodic table.
I. Fill in the blanks :
- The periodic tableis an organized arrangement of the chemical elements, in order of their ………………….. ……….. (number of protons), electron configurations, and their chemical
- The ……… …………….. represents the number of protons in the nucleus or the electrons orbiting the nucleus.
- The…………… ………..… is the average mass of the protons, electrons and neutrons in a single atom.
- …………… are noted by the vertical column and represent families of elements.
- Periods are noted by the …………………. rows on the periodic chart.
II. State True or False
- Each compound is represented by a square on the Periodic Table and each is denoted by its own unique series of letters.
- Groups are the horizontal rows and represent families of elements.
- While groups and periods are useful in understanding the chemical families, elements are also seen as being organized by blocks.
- The noble gases have low melting and boiling points.
- Over time a color scheme has been added to the periodic chart to help understand which elements belong to named categories.
I. Fill in the blanks –
- Atomic number
- Atomic number
- Atomic mass
II. State True or False –